Skip to main content

Table 1 Main properties of composites of polymers with carbonaceous additives prepared by FDM as reported in literature. a CF: carbon fibre, b CNT/MWCNTs: carbon nanotube/multi-walled carbon nanotubes, c CB: carbon black, d PEI: Poly(ether imide)

From: Fused deposition modelling (FDM) of composites of graphene nanoplatelets and polymers for high thermal conductivity: a mini-review

Thermal properties
 ABSaCF(13 wt%)CTE(μm/m°C):9.85; TC (W/mK):0.4 (in-plane)[58]
 PLAbGraphite (30 wt%)/CNT(1 wt%)TC(W/mK):5[38]
 PLAGrapheneΔT(°C): 0.5; (Voltage applied: 10 V, time: 300 s)[59]
 PA6Graphite (50 wt%)TC(W/mK):5.5 (through-plane)[40]
 ABSCNT(8 wt%)ΔT(°C):250; (Voltage applied:24 V,10s)[53]
 ABSGraphite (4.3vol%) CF(1.7vol%)TC(W/mK):0.4 (in-plane)
TC(W/mK):0.2 (in-plane)
 ABSGraphite (21.7w%)TC(W/mK):17.60[54]
 PA12GNP(10 wt%)TC(W/mK):1.2[51]
 PA12CF(10 wt%)TC(W/mK):0.8[52]
Electrical properties
 ABSCNT (10 wt%)EC (S/cm):3.3x10−6[60]
 PLAbMWCNT (10 wt%)EC (S/cm):6x103[61]
 PCLcCB (15 wt%)Electrical resistance (kΩ): 19 (60s)[62]
 EpoxyCNF(4 wt%)Surface resistivity (Ω/sq.):1000; Volume resistivity (Ωcm):1000[63]
 TPUMWCNT (3 wt%)Relative resistance (R/R0):6 (tensile strain: 50%, 20 cycles)[64]
 PLACF(20 wt%)Relative resistance (R/R0):3.5 (tensile strain:1.7%, stress: 20 MPa)
Relative resistance (R/R0):1.2 (tensile strain:5%, Force (N):100)
 ABSCNT(8 wt%)Electrical resistivity (Ωcm):1[53]
dPEIMWCNTResistance (Ω):15.37 (220 s under cyclical mechanical loading)[66]
Graphene (0.09vol%)EC(S/m):1
 ABSGraphene (8 wt%)EC(S/m):0.01[10]
 PLAGraphene (8 wt%)EC(S/m):1[67]
CNT(8 wt%)EC(S/m):1
ABSCB(15 wt%)Resistivity (Ω·m):120@1 Hz 
PLAGNP(8 wt%)Capacitance (μF): 28@0.5 μA[69]
PMMAGNP (10 wt%)EC(S/cm):14.2[70]
Mechanical properties
 ABSMWCNT (10 wt%)E (MPa): 1600; σ(MPa): 56; ε(%): 5[60]
 ABSCNT (3 wt%) + CFE (MPa): 3400[71]
 PLACF (6.6 vol%)E (MPa): 20000; σ(MPa):180; ε(%): 1[72]
 ABSCF (10 wt%)E (MPa):7900; σ(MPa):37.4; ε(%): 5[73]
 PLAGraphene (0.5 wt%)E (MPa):2000; σ(MPa):40; ε(%): 25[74]
 PLAMWCNT (0.5 wt%)E (MPa):2500; σ(MPa):40; ε(%): 25[74]
 ABSCF(7.5 wt%)E (MPa):2500; σ(MPa):25; Ductility (%): 3[75]
 PLACF (13 wt%)E increase (%):350; σ(MPa):200[76]
 ABSCF (30 wt%)E (MPa):13000; σ(MPa):60[77]
 EpoxyCFE (GPa):161.4;σ(MPa):793[78]
Flexural modulus (GPa):144; Flexural strength (MPa):202
 PLACFFlexural modulus (GPa): 10; Flexural strength (MPa):180 (Tliquefier = 210 °C, layer thickness = 0.5 mm)[20]
 PLAModified CFFlexural modulus (MPa):91; Flexural strength (MPa):156[79]
 EpoxySiC/C (31vol%)E (GPa):24.5; σ(MPa):66.2[80]
 NylonCF (34.5vol%)σ (MPa):500; ε(%): 1.7 (6CF layers)[81]
 ABSCF(1.4vol%)σ (kN):1.5; Stroke (mm):4.5[82]
 TPUMWCNT(3 wt%)σ(MPa):3; ε(%):50 (20 cycles, linear biaxial sensor)[64]
 ABSCF(13 wt%)E (MPa):71; σ(MPa):7[58]
 PLACF(20 wt%)σ(MPa):32.5; ε(%): 1.7[65]
Flexural strength (MPa):68.2; Flexural strain(%):5
 PEICNTσ(MPa):120; ε(%):5[66]
 PLAGraphene(8 wt%)σ(MPa):60; ε(%):4[50]
 ABSGraphene (8 wt%)E (MPa):3500;σ(MPa):2700[9]
 ABSCF(18 wt%)σ(MPa):58.6[30]
 PLARecycled CFE (GPa):20;σ(MPa):250[83]
Flexural modulus (GPa):13;Flexural strength (MPa):250
 ABSCNT(8 wt%)σ(MPa):37;ε(%):7[53]
 ABSGraphite(4.3vol%)σ(MPa):37.55; ε(%):6[41]
CF(1.7vol%)σ(MPa):35.73; ε(%):10
 PA12GNP(6 wt%)E (MPa):2252; σ(MPa):41; ε(%):12[51]
 PA12CF(6 wt%)E (MPa):2700; σ(MPa):80; ε(%):5[52]
 PLAGrapheneE (GPa):4; Nanohardness (MPa):146[84]
Wear volume loss (mm3):3.5 (20 N, 30s)
Creep displacement (μm):0.3 (25mN, 1 s)
 PLAGraphene (2 wt%)E (MPa):900; σ(MPa):60[67]
  Flexural modulus (MPa):3070; Flexural strength (MPa):94.2
 CNT (2 wt%)Flexural modulus (MPa):2620; Flexural strength (MPa):82
 PA6CF(25vol%)E (GPa):53[85]
 PEEKMWCNT(5vol%)Ultimate strength (MPa): 105[86]
 PA6CF(40vol%)E (GPa):68 ± 6; σ(MPa):700 ± 70[87]
 TPU/PLAGO(5 wt%)E (MPa): 55[88]
 PEEKCF(28vol%)/GNP(5vol%)E (GPa): 7[89]
 EVAGraphite (40 wt%)Compressive strength (MPa): 30; Hardness (Shore D): 28[90]
 PLAGNP(10 wt%)E:2.4 GPa; σ: 40 MPa[91]
 ABSMWCNT(8 wt%)E (MPa): 2150 ± 80; σ(MPa): 46.9 ± 0.9; ε(%): 4.0 ± 0.7[92]
 PLAGNP(12 wt%)E (GPa): 3.5 ± 0.048 ± 0.257[93]