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Table 4 List of PC-based hybrid structure for EMI shielding applications

From: The journey of polycarbonate-based composites towards suppressing electromagnetic radiation

Sl. No. Filler Matrix Processing SET/ RLmin/ Specific SET Thickness Frequency Reference
1 CNT (5 wt%) PC Melt mixing, compression molding SET ~ −24 dB 1.85 mm 8.2–12.4 GHz [36]
2 CNT (10 wt%) PC Melt mixing, injection molding SET = −27.2 dB   12.4–18 GHz [67]
3 CNT (20 wt%) PC Layer of 5 films-solvent casting SET = − 43 dB 2.15 mm 8.2–12.4 GHz [72]
4 CNT (10 wt%) PC Solvent casting, compression molding (low pressure) SET = − 35 dB
(ρ = 1.1 g/cc)
1.97 mm 8.2–12.4 GHz [72]
5 CNT (10 wt%) PC Solvent casting, compression molding (high pressure) SET = − 21 dB
(ρ = 1.17 g/cc)
1.785 mm 8.2–12.4 GHz [72]
6 CNT (2 wt%) PC (with 70 wt% PC bead) Solution blending, compression molding SET = -23.1 dB 5.6 mm 8.2–12.4 GHz [73]
7 CB (10 wt%, 8 wt%) PC Extrusion, injection molding SET = -18.9
dB (at 10 wt%), − 13.3 dB (at 8 wt%)
3.2 mm 800 MHz [74]
8 CNT (8 wt%) PC Extrusion, injection molding SET = -18.4
dB
3.2 mm 800 MHz [74]
9 GNP (15 wt% GNP) PC Extrusion, injection molding SET = -6.3
dB
3.2 mm 800 MHz [74]
10 CB/CNT (5 wt% CB and 5 wt% CNT) PC Extrusion, injection molding SET = -21.4
dB
3.2 mm 800 MHz [74]
11 CB/GNP (5 wt% CB and 5 wt% GNP) PC Extrusion, injection molding SET ~ -9.2
dB
3.2 mm 800 MHz [74]
12 CNT/GNP (5 wt% CNT and 5 wt% GNP) PC Extrusion, injection molding SET ~ -15.5
dB
3.2 mm 800 MHz [74]
13 GNP/CNT (3:2 by wt) (4 wt%) PC Melt mixing at high T (330 °C), compression molding SET = -21.6
dB
5.6 mm 8.2–12.4 GHz [75]
14 GNP/CNT (3:2 by wt) (4 wt%) PC Melt mixing at 280 °C, compression molding SET = -8.3
dB
5.6 mm 8.2–12.4 GHz [75]
15 CNT (4 wt%) PC   SET ~ -14
dB
  8.5 GHz [76]
16 CB (6 wt%) PC   SET ~ -13
dB
  8.5 GHz [76]
 17 GNP (12 wt%) PC   SET ~ -7
dB
  8.5 GHz [76]
18 CNT (3 wt%) PC Melt extrusion, compression molding SET = -17
dB
RL = -32.1 dB
RL @ 2 mm SET @18 GHz
RL @11.2 GHz
[77]
19 3 wt% CNT/10 wt% Fe3O4 (size of Fe3O4 = 100–150 nm) PC Solution followed by melt extrusion, compression molding SET ~ -19.5
dB
RL = -21.8 dB
RL @ 3 mm SET @18 GHz
RL @6.1 GHz
[77]
20 3 wt% CNT/10 wt% Fe3O4@C (size of Fe3O4@C = 20–80 nm; 25% as C shell and 75% as Fe3O4) PC Solution followed by melt extrusion, compression molding SET = -22.8
dB
RL = -41.3 dB
RL @ 1 mm SET @18 GHz
RL @17.7 GHz
[77]
21 CNT (3 wt%) PC Melt mixing (250 °C), compression molding (265 °C) SET = -14 dB (using scalar network analyser) 1 mm 11 GHz [78]
22 CNT (3 wt%) PC Solution mixing, compression molding (265 °C) SET = -16.4 dB
(using scalar network analyser)
1 mm 11 GHz [78]
23 CNT (2 wt%) PC Melt mixing (250 °C), compression molding (265 °C) SET = -19.6 dB
(using scalar network analyser)
3.5 mm 11 GHz [78]
24 a-CF (10 phr)/ a-CNT (0.5 phr) PC MiniMAX molder, compression molding SET = -26 dB 2 mm 10 GHz [79]
25 GNP (6 wt%) PC Solution mixing, hot compaction SET~-47 dB 2 mm 8.2 GHz [35]
26 3 wt% CNT PC Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -23 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [80]
27 3 wt% CNT/ 5 wt% rGO-Fe3O4 PC Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -28 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [80]
28 3 wt% CNT/ 5 wt% rGO-Gd2O3 PC Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -33 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [80]
29 4 wt% CNT/5 wt% rGO-Fe3O4 compartment approach PC Solution approach for compartment unit, followed by hot press SET = -43.5 dB 2 mm 8.2–12.4 GHz [81]
30 4 wt% CNT/5 wt% rGO-Fe3O4 random dispersion PC Solution approach, followed by hot press SET = -35.5 dB 2 mm 8.2–12.4 GHz [81]
31 4 wt% CNT compartment approach PC Solution approach for compartment unit, followed by hot press SET = -33.2 dB 2 mm 8.2–12.4 GHz [81]
32 4 wt% CNT random dispersion PC Solution approach, followed by hot press SET = -31 dB 2 mm 8.2–12.4 GHz [81]
33 7 wt% GFs and 3 wt% MFs PC/ABS Injection molding SET ~ -40 dB 2 mm 1 Hz [83]
34 PPIC (30 wt%) PC Solution blending SET = -52 dB 2 mm 8 GHz [84]
35 CNT (5 wt%) PC Melt mixing, compression molding SET ~ -40 dB
(theoretical- from eq. 11)
4 mm 500–3000 MHz [69]
36 NH2 modified CNT (1 wt%) PC/SAN Melt blending, compression molding SET = -14 dB ~  5 mm 8–18 GHz [57]
37 CNT (3 wt%) PC Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -23 dB ~  5 mm 18 GHz [85]
38 CNT-grafted Fe3O4 (3 wt%) PC Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -28 dB ~  5 mm 18 GHz [85]
39 CNT (3 wt%) PC/SAN (60/40) Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -31 dB ~  5 mm 18 GHz [85]
40 CNT (3 wt%) and dopamine anchored-Fe3O4 (3 vol%) PC/SAN (60/40) Solution followed by melt mixing, compression molding SET = -31 dB ~  5 mm 18 GHz [85]
41 CNT-grafted Fe3O4 (3 wt%) PC/SAN (60/40) Solution followed by melt mixing, compression molding SET = -32.5 dB ~  5 mm 18 GHz [85]
42 CNT (3 wt%) PC/SAN (50/50) Melt mixing, compression molding SET ~ -26 dB ~  5 mm 18 GHz [85]
43 CNT-grafted Fe3O4 (3 wt%) PC/SAN (50/50) Solution followed by melt mixing, compression molding SET = -30 dB ~  5 mm 18 GHz [85]
44 CNT (3 phr CNT) PC/ABS/SAN-g-MAH (5 phr) Melt mixing, injection molding SET = -5.4 to −8.4 dB 2 mm 0.1–1.5 GHz [86]
45 Carbon fibers (15 wt%) and graphite flakes (40 wt%) Ni-PC/ABS (45 wt%) Melt mixing SET = − 57 dB (@ 2000 MHz), SET = − 79 dB (@ 4000 MHz)   500–4000 MHz [87]
46 CNT (3 wt%), Co-rGO (9.6 wt% Co, 2.4 wt% GO) PC/SAN Solution mixing, melt mixing SET = -34 dB ~  5 mm 18 GHz [88]
47 LA-g-CNT (5 phr) PC/PLA Melt extrusion EMI SE = 1.3 × 101 dB
(theoretical- from eq. 10)
0.2 mm   [82]
48 PANI-CNT-Fe3O4 (3 wt%) + BT PC/PVDF (40/60 w/w) Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -37 dB
RL = -71 dB
5 mm SET @18 GHz
RL @12.9 GHz
[89]
49 PANI-CNT-Fe3O4 (3 wt%) PC/PVDF (40/60 w/w) Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -32 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [89]
50 PANI-CNT (3 wt%) PC/PVDF (40/60 w/w) Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -26 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [89]
51 CNT (3 wt%) PC/PVDF (40/60 w/w) Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -22 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [89]
52 3 wt% PDI-MWNT (in PVDF) + NF-NH2 (in PC) PC/PVDF (50/50 w/w) Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -40 dB
RL = -67 dB
5 mm SET @18 GHz
RL @17 GHz
[90]
53 3 wt% PDI-MWNT (in PVDF) + BT-NH2 (in PC) PC/PVDF (50/50 w/w) Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -35 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [90]
54 2 wt% CNT PC/PVDF (40/60 w/w) Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -18 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [91]
55 2 wt% IL-MWNT PC/PVDF (40/60 w/w) Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -24 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [91]
56 5 wt% BaFe localized in PC PC/PVDF (40/60 w/w) Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -7 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [91]
57 2 wt% IL-MWNT+  5 wt% BaFe (all in PVDF) PC/PVDF (40/60 w/w) Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -26 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [91]
58 2 wt% IL-MWNT (in PVDF) + 5 wt% BaFe (in PC) PC/PVDF (40/60 w/w) Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -34 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [91]
59 2 wt% IL-MWNT (in PVDF) + 5 wt% BaFe (in PC) PC/PVDF (40/60 w/w) with 10 wt% PMMA Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -37 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [91]
60 3 wt% CNT+  10 wt% rGO–Ni PC/SAN (60/40 w/w) Solution followed by melt mixing, compression molding SET = -48 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [92]
61 3 wt% CNT+  10 wt% Ni PC/SAN (60/40 w/w) Solution followed by melt mixing, compression molding SET = -32.2 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [92]
62 3 wt% CNT+  5 wt% rGO PC/SAN (60/40 w/w) Solution followed by melt mixing, compression molding SET = -30.8 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [92]
63 3 wt% CNT PC/SAN (60/40 w/w) Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -25.1 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [92]
64 10 wt% rGO–Ni PC/SAN (60/40 w/w) Solution followed by melt mixing, compression molding SET = -3 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [92]
65 3 wt% CNT PC Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -17.3 dB 5 mm 18 GHz [92]
66 NCCF (20 wt%)/ TiO2 (5 wt%) PP/PC (70/30) with 5 wt% PP-g-MA Pultrusion, screw extrusion and injection molding SET = -51.6 dB
(theoretical- from eq. 10)
  Far-field [93]
67 10 phr CNT PC/EMA (95/5 w/w) Melt blending SET ~ -26 dB 3 mm 8.2–12.4 GHz [94]
68 15 phr IrGO PC/EMA (95/5 w/w) Melt blending SET ~ -30 dB 3 mm 8.2–12.4 GHz [95]
69 10 wt% CNT PC/PP (60/40 w/w) Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -22 dB 2 mm 3 GHz [96]
70 10 wt% CNT PC/PP (60/40 w/w) with 10 wt% PP-g-MA Melt mixing, compression molding SET = -54.78 dB 2 mm 3 GHz [96]
71 10 phr graphene/ CNT hybrid (1:3) PC/EMA (95/5 w/w) Melt blending SET ~ -34 dB   8.2–12.4 GHz [97]
72 10 phr graphene PC/EMA (95/5 w/w) Melt blending SET ~ -23 dB   8.2–12.4 GHz [97]
73 10 phr CNTs PC/EMA (95/5 w/w) Melt blending SET ~ -25 dB   8.2–12.4 GHz [97]
74 20 phr long CF PC/ABS (70/30) Pultrusion, injection molding SET = -37.6 dB 2 mm 10 GHz [98]
75 20 phr chopped CF PC/ABS (70/30) Screw extrusion, injection molding SET = -6.8 dB 2 mm 10 GHz [98]
76 20 phr long CF PC Pultrusion, injection molding SET = -37.1 dB 2 mm 10 GHz [98]
77 20 phr chopped CF PC Screw extrusion, injection molding SET = -2.8 dB 2 mm 10 GHz [98]
78 CB
(PC:ABS:CB = 0.83:0:0.17).
PC Injection molding SET = -9 dB 4 mm 800 MHz [99]
79 CB
(PC:ABS:CB = 0.78:0.05:0.17).
PC/ABS Injection molding SET = -5 dB 4 mm 900 MHz [99]
80 CNT based- waterborne ink PC Multilayer with conductivity gradient SET ~ -20 dB and above 17.97 mm 8–70 GHz [100]
81 2 ply- FeCoNi-coated glass fabrics (MGF), with or without Ni grid PC Multilayer SET ~ -90 dB ~ 500 μm or more 10 ~ 11 GHz [101]
82 90% CF in CEF-NF PC layers Sandwiched film SET = -38.6 dB 0.29 mm 30–1500 MHz [70]
83 CF/Ni (Ni thickness of 1.075 mm) PC layers Sandwiched film SET = -72.7 dB 0.31 mm 30–1500 MHz [33]
84 Ni nanowire PC layers Multilayer with conductivity and permeability gradient SEA = − 34.3 dB
Mean SEA = − 18 dB
600 μm 67 GHz (@SEA)
8–67 GHz (@ mean SEA)
[63]
85 ITO/Au/ITO PC Multilayer sputter-deposited film SET = -26.8 dB 141 nm 8.2–12 GHz [102]
86 CF (60 wt%) PC PC liquid infiltration through CF- laminate formation by thermo compression SET = − 40 dB 2 mm 12–18 GHz [103]
87 GNP (0.5 wt%) PC Foam/ supercritical CO2 specific SET =
− 78 dBcm3/g
  8.5 GHz [104]
88 CNT (5 wt%) PC Foam/ supercritical CO2 specific SET ~
−16 dBcm3/g
  9.5 GHz [105]
89 GNP (0.5 wt%) PC Foam/ supercritical CO2 specific SET ~
− 39 dB cm3/g
  8.5 GHz [106]
90 CNT (2 wt%) PC Foam/ supercritical CO2 SET ~ − 14 dB   15–17 GHz [107]