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Table 2 Electrical conductivities of hybrid braided threads and composites tufted with them

From: Multi-material braids for multifunctional laminates: conductive through-thickness reinforcement

Electrical conductivity S/m
Conductivity of copper wire 5.96 × 107
Measured on straightened threadsa (0.60 ± 0.30) × 107
Conductivity of most conductive threads averaged over timea (1.50 ± 0.15) × 107
Calculated for hybrid threada, b 1.03 × 107
Four straight copper wires in a cylinder of radius R 1.13 × 107
Through-thickness of non-tufted carbon-epoxy c 0.74 ± 0.07
Through-thickness of tufted, minimum c 0.93
Through-thickness of tufted, maximum c 98.89
  1. a at nominal radius of R = 0.23 mm,
  2. b input longitudinal/transverse conductivity of carbon of 104 /1 S/m
  3. c measured at cut blocks of 10 × 10 mm in the plane of the laminate